Association between Women's Nutrition during Pregnancy and Body Composition of the Offspring until 18 Months.

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Objectives & Study: Evidence shows that maternal nutrition is related to the body composition of the offspring and the potential risk on developing obesity and chronic diseases in adulthood. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutrition during the third trimester of pregnancy of women with normal weight, overweight, obesity and gestational diabetes, with the evolution of the triceps skinfold thickness (TST), subscapular skinfold thickness (SST) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) between 3 and 18 months of life of the offspring.

Methods: The dietary assessment was performed with 7-day food diary at 34 weeks gestation; macronutrients intake and the percentage of total energy value (%TEV) was analysed using the DIAL program, and as normal intake was considered the DRIs of the Food and Nutrition Board. Anthropometric measurements were obtained according to the WHO standards and Anthro program, at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months of life in the offspring. Multiple linear regression models were used for data analysis. Dependent variables were the ratio of the expected evolution of the TST, SST and MAC, and independent variables were the %TEV of the intake of macronutrients.

Results: Eighty-six mothers and their children were evaluated. We found that a maternal intake during third trimester of pregnancy high in %TEV protein (R= 0.762, b= -0.299, p= 0.000) and high in %TEV carbohydrates (R= 0.761, b= -0.096, p= 0.000) was associated to a less decrease of the offspring TST during the first 18 months of life. In the same way, a maternal intake high in %TEV protein (R= 0.251, b= -0.079, p= 0.001) and high in %TEV carbohydrates (R= 0.234, b= -0.024, p= 0.002) were also related to a less decrease in the offspring SST during the first 12 months of life. Finally, a maternal intake high in %TEV protein (R= 0.307, b= 0.073, p= 0.000) and high in %TEV carbohydrates (R= 0.296, b= 0.022, p= 0.001) was associated to an increased MAC at 18 months of age in their offspring, after confounder adjustment for BMI before and during pregnancy and other confounder factors. The maternal lipids intake does not show association with the evolution of TST, SST and MAC at any moment of the examination.

Conclusion: The minor decrease in TST and SST is associated to the increment of maternal intake in proteins and carbohydrates during the third trimester of pregnancy, but not with mother’s lipid intake before and during pregnancy. These results support the Early Nutrition Programming hypothesis, about how intrauterine exposure to large amounts of glucose and high maternal protein intake during pregnancy could cause changes in the fetus and increase the risk to develop obesity in later stages of life.

*This study was granted by Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science, Excellence Projects (P06-CTS-02341).


Liliana Ladino 1, 2,*, Rosario Moreno-Torres 1, Dani Campos 1, Mary-Carmen Baltazar 1, 3, Cristina Campoy 1, 4 and the PREOBE Research Group
1EURISTIKOS Excellence Centre for Paediatric Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain, 2Institute of Research in Nutrition, Genetics and Metabolism, El Bosque University, Bogotá, Colombia, 3National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico, 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

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Fecha de publicación 01 de diciembre de 2014
Fecha de aceptación 01 de diciembre de 2014
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition

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